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Who were the "messengers" Allah sent before that are referenced in the Koran?

(The same are) those who say: Lo! Allah hath charged us that we believe not in any messenger until he bring us an offering which fire (from heaven) shall devour. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Messengers came unto you before me with miracles, and with that (very miracle) which ye describe. Why then did ye slay them? (Answer that) if ye are truthful! And if they deny thee, even so did they deny messengers who were before thee, who came with miracles and with the Psalms and with the Scripture giving light. Surah 3:183-184

The Koran says Allah sent messengers to the people before, with the ability to do miracles. Those messengers were killed. Muhammad alludes to them writing Psalms (David and Solomon?) and the Scripture (Jesus and the apostles?).

The Bible agrees. God sent messengers who performed miraculous signs and predicted future events miraculously.  Prophets like Moses, Elijah, Elisha and Daniel displayed miracles.  Prophets like Isaiah, Jeremiah and Micah made accurate predictions.  Prophets like Joel and Ezekiel spoke of judgment.

And certainly We sent before you messengers to their people, so they came to them with clear arguments, then We gave the punishment to those who were guilty; and helping the believers is ever incumbent on Us. Surah 30:47

The Bible even agrees that these messengers used clear arguments—not tactful debate, but plain words of coming destruction.   These messengers are found in the Old Testament and New Testament, including the apostles and disciples who worked to spread the word of Jesus Christ.  They too performed miracles AND gave clear arguments.

Some of them died for their prophecies, sacrificing their lives for what God called them to do.

However, their message differed completely from Muhammad's.  The rejection he received does not make his message correct.  He cannot put himself in the same category as Biblical prophets.  The messengers before him were rejected because of stubbornness and sinfulness.  Muhammad was rejected because he did not live up to the standards of a messenger - miracles and accurate prophecy.