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Can you tell the whole story about how the devil turned into what he is now?

While there is no precise story of Satan’s story, we can piece together some information, mainly from a prophecy in the book of Ezekiel that seems to be describing more than an ancient city called Tyre that is prophesied to be destroyed in Ezekiel 26 and 27:

The word of the LORD came to me: “Son of man, take up a lament concerning Tyre. Say to Tyre, situated at the gateway to the sea, merchant of peoples on many coasts, ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says:
“ ‘You say, O Tyre, “I am perfect in beauty.” Ezekiel 27:1-3

Tyre was a coast city, that specialized in trade. Many people throughout the world loved Tyre and will moan that it will be destroyed. So far, it sounds like a real city.

Then in Chapter 28, we see what would cause the fall of the city:

The word of the LORD came to me:
“Son of man, say to the ruler of Tyre, ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says:
“ ‘In the pride of your heart
you say, “I am a god;
I sit on the throne of a god
in the heart of the seas.”
But you are a man and not a god,
though you think you are as wise as a god.
Are you wiser than Daniel?
Is no secret hidden from you?
By your wisdom and understanding
you have gained wealth for yourself
and amassed gold and silver
in your treasuries.
By your great skill in trading
you have increased your wealth,
and because of your wealth
your heart has grown proud.
“ ‘Therefore this is what the Sovereign LORD says:
“ ‘Because you think you are wise,
as wise as a god,
I am going to bring foreigners against you,
the most ruthless of nations;
they will draw their swords against your beauty and wisdom
and pierce your shining splendor.
They will bring you down to the pit,
and you will die a violent death
in the heart of the seas.
Will you then say, “I am a god,”
in the presence of those who kill you?
You will be but a man, not a god,
in the hands of those who slay you.
You will die the death of the uncircumcised
at the hands of foreigners.
I have spoken, declares the Sovereign LORD.’" Ezekiel 28:1-10

Pride and worldly materialism can destroy any city.  This section is saying the people even elevated themselves to a godhood status. Then the prophecy describes the ruler of this city:

The word of the LORD came to me:
“Son of man, take up a lament concerning the king of Tyre and say to him: ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says:
“ ‘You were the model of perfection,
full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.
You were in Eden,
the garden of God;
every precious stone adorned you:
ruby, topaz and emerald,
chrysolite, onyx and jasper,
sapphire, turquoise and beryl.
Your settings and mountings were made of gold;
on the day you were created they were prepared.
You were anointed as a guardian cherub,
for so I ordained you.
You were on the holy mount of God;
you walked among the fiery stones.
You were blameless in your ways
from the day you were created
till wickedness was found in you.
Through your widespread trade
you were filled with violence,
and you sinned.
So I drove you in disgrace from the mount of God,
and I expelled you, O guardian cherub,
from among the fiery stones.
Your heart became proud
on account of your beauty,
and you corrupted your wisdom
because of your splendor.
So I threw you to the earth;
I made a spectacle of you before kings.
By your many sins and dishonest trade
you have desecrated your sanctuaries.
So I made a fire come out from you,
and it consumed you,
and I reduced you to ashes on the ground
in the sight of all who were watching.
All the nations who knew you
are appalled at you;
you have come to a horrible end
and will be no more.’" Ezekiel 28:11-18

All of a sudden it doesn’t sound like a real king of a real city.
  • The person described is perfect, beautiful, wise.
  • He was in the Garden of Eden.
  • He was an angel with access to God’s highest, holiest place.
  • He was sinless when created until he became wicked.
  • Filled with violence and sin, he was expelled from God’s holy place.
  • He was filled with pride because he was so beautiful.
  • His destiny will be in the fire and ashes.
By piecing this prophecy together, we find hidden in it a description of Satan. He was God’s most perfect creation, created with the angels around the time of the Garden of Eden (verse 13), who became filled with pride over his beauty and attractiveness. Sometime before man was created, he sinned against God’s wishes and God had to remove him from His presence. (Isaiah 14 has a similar prophecy) Satan then made it his priority to tempt God’s next most perfect creation, man. Feeling that he himself should get all the attention, Satan made man the target of his attacks.

We also see in Job chapter 1 that Satan presented himself before God with a proposition.  Apparently he' allowed to visit heaven but has no authority over God.