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How do we know if someone is a Christian?

For this reason, since the day we heard about you, we have not stopped praying for you. We continually ask God to fill you with the knowledge of his will through all the wisdom and understanding that the Spirit gives, so that you may live a life worthy of the Lord and please him in every way: bearing fruit in every good work, growing in the knowledge of God, being strengthened with all power according to his glorious might so that you may have great endurance and patience, and giving joyful thanks to the Father, who has qualified you to share in the inheritance of his holy people in the kingdom of light. For he has rescued us from the dominion of darkness and brought us into the kingdom of the Son he loves, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.  Colossians 1:9-14

While we can never really know for sure if someone is a Christian - only God knows the heart of a person - we can tell if a person is truly following Christ or if they are just saying they are a Christian.  Many people who are about to be married want to know this answer about their future spouse before they commit their life to them.

Paul, addressing the church in Colossae, gave an outline of the things he wanted the believers of that church to do.  They are an excellent guide to what we must look for in a true follower of Christ.

Seeking God with knowledge, wisdom and understanding.  Are they into the word of God on a regular basis, studying it on their own?  Do they go to church to worship?  Are they in a small group to learn more?

Wanting to live a life worthy of God, pleasing him.  Do they have a child-father relationship with God, desiring to please Him and not other people?

Bearing fruit in their ministry to others.  Are they evangelizing, teaching and spreading God's message of love and hope to the world and people respond positively to them?

Receiving strength from God.  Is God's power sufficient for them or do they seek worldly power to support themselves?

Living life with endurance, patience and joy.  Are they convinced of God's will and timing?

Knowing they will receive a godly inheritance.  Are they sure they will be in heaven because of what Christ did for them?

Accepting God's salvation and forgiveness.  Do they know they are saved and forgiven by Christ's death on the cross or do they feel they must do more to earn his forgiveness and love?

While no one perfectly lines up with all seven of these, they are certainly good indicators that someone is a follower of Christ.