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Who is the pregnant woman from Revelation?

A great and wondrous sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head. She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth. Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads. His tail swept a third of the stars out of the sky and flung them to the earth. The dragon stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, so that he might devour her child the moment it was born. She gave birth to a son, a male child, who will rule all the nations with an iron scepter. And her child was snatched up to God and to his throne. The woman fled into the desert to a place prepared for her by God, where she might be taken care of for 1,260 days. Revelation 12:1-6

From this passage we know this about the pregnant woman:
  • It is not a constellation nor a supernova giving birth to a star
  • The woman escapes Satan's attacks
  • The woman gives birth to a male son who becomes a king
Joseph had a dream using this imagery about the stars, moon and sun.

Then he had another dream, and he told it to his brothers. “Listen,” he said, “I had another dream, and this time the sun and moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me.”  Genesis 37:9

Stars, moon and sun have always represented the twelve tribes of Israel.

So the woman could be Israel giving birth to the Messiah.  Israel is protected from destruction for a limited amount of time.

OR, the woman could be a direct allusion to Mary giving birth to Jesus.  She and Joseph had to escape from Herod's attacks on the children in Bethlehem by fleeing into the wilderness and landing in Egypt.  Jesus ascends to his throne in heaven.